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National awakening of Romania

Short facts about the national awakening and independenceof Romania

During the late Middle Ages, Moldova and Wallachia were under the suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire and Transylvania was occupied by the Austrian-Hungarians. The Romanian inhabitants, especially in Transylvania, faced several suppressions and were often not even considered to be citizens (as it was the case with the city of Brasov where they not allowed to live within the city walls). The desire of forming an independent national state emerged also in the three Romanian historical provinces and led to several uprisings against the occupying powers, the most important one being the one of Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821. The revolution year of 1848 which started in France expanded very rapidly and reached also the three Romanian provinces. They failed to achieve their goal but opened the path of free election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza as ruler in both Wallachia and Moldova (with the support of the Great Powers) and the foundation of the first state of Romania . Though, because of internal struggles for power and the thread of the Ottoman empire unhappy with the independence policy of this new state, a foreign prince was brought to rulership ower Romania.

 

Timeline

1812 Russia annexes Bessarabia.
1829 Treaty of Adrianopole: Russia declares protectorate over Moldavia and Wallachia.
1834 Russians withdraw from Moldavia and Wallachia.
1846 Customs union of Moldavia and Wallachia.
1848 Failed revolutions in the principalities and in Transylvania.
Russia reoccupies Moldavia and Wallachia.
1856 Partial Russian withdrawal, following Crimean War.
1859 Alexander John Cuza unites Moldavia and Wallachia under his personal rule.
1862 Formal union of Moldavia and Wallachia to form principality of Romania.
1867 Formation of the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary, which assigns Transylvania to Hungary.
1918 After World War I, Transylvania, part of Banat, Bessarabia (Eastern Moldavia between Prut and Dniester rivers) and Bukovina unite with Romania.
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